October 7, 2009

Holy cow: Walking consumes more gasoline than driving! | Brad Ideas

Filed under: Uncategorized — SL @ 10:02 pm

(So, walking consumes a  lot more 'gasoline' than motorcycling…and about double the 'calories' (76 vs 38 per mile/)  of cycling (not accounting for energy consumed to produce food)


Motorcycling good

Exercise bad



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Corp-speak and motorcycling

Filed under: Uncategorized — SL @ 9:32 pm

Several weeks ago I got an email from a senior Head Office manager whom I like and respect. (See, I don't think everyone in HO are 'grey men').

It was about new corporate structures.

I know she was just trying to evolve synergies, but I only had  a vague idea as to what the email meant.

Part of the problem is my declining mental acuity.  The other issue is jargon, in this case 'corp-speak'.

Jargon serves one of two purposes:

* to facilitate communication, or

* obfuscation

Corp-speak is mostly about the latter, although native corp-speakers are often oblivious of this fact.

I suppose if I lived in a foreign country, I would absorb the local lingo as well.

As Don Watson (ABC 730 report last night) said, corp-speak is poisoning communication everywhere.

While corp-speak is unreal, motorcycling is real.

Some of the talk about motorcycling (or walking, running or cycling or sailing) may be unreal, but these activities themselves are real.

While motorcycling, ensure you engage and act on timely and ongoing risk assessments, as well as interacting with other transport infrastructure users in a socially responsible and empathetic manner.

Or, you can just be a safe and considerate rider.  🙂


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Email Service Guide – Interview with Jeremy Howard of FastMail.FM

Filed under: Uncategorized — SL @ 9:36 am

Posted via email from sl26mi

Critical Vitamin Deficiency on the Rise (The Paleo Diet Update v5, #40)

Filed under: Uncategorized — SL @ 5:44 am
    The Paleo Diet Update
    Loren Cordain, Ph.D.
    Issue: # 2009 – 40 / October 2, 2009


    Hello! Welcome to The Paleo Diet Update, a look at current scientific research into what causes and what can prevent disease. Again and again, research has indicated that reproducing the nutrition that sustained our ancestors for millions of years can keep us healthly, active and vital.

    In addition to better nutrition, our ancestors also had more access to sunlight, which is critical for maintaining adequate levels of vitamin D. Current research is showing that vitamin D deficiency not only results in disease, but this deficiency is also alarmingly prevalent.

    Ultraviolet B light (UV-B) is the wave length of sunlight that stimulates our skin to make vitamin D. The increasing tendency of children to spend more time indoors has contributed to low levels of vitamin D. In addition, while UV-B is plentiful in summer sunlight, it is filtered out in winter due to the sun’s position. This also allows vitamin D levels in our blood to become very low without adequate supplementation.

    In this issue, we take a look at who is at high risk for vitamin D deficiency, and the risk factors for disease associated with this. We'll also share ideas on making portable and non-perishable jerky, as well as dried fruits and vegetables.

    Thanks to Maelán Fontes and Pablo Martinez Ramirez, this update is also available in Spanish.


    Loren Cordain, Ph.D.

    In This Issue

    Make Your Own Jerky
        A Critical Vitamin Deficiency Is on the Rise            by Wiley Long

    A newly published study in Pediatrics had unexpected results: seven out of ten children in the U.S. suffered low levels of vitamin D. Such a deficiency could put children at risk for rickets (a bone disease in infants that is already known to be increasing), heart disease, and high blood pressure.

    In the study, several key risk factors for disease were associated with vitamin D deficiency. These included higher parathyroid hormone levels (a marker of bone health), higher systolic blood pressure, lower serum calcium, and lower HDL or “good” cholesterol levels.

    Millions may be at risk

    This study involved more than 6,000 children at Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University. Extrapolating the percentage of children who had low levels of vitamin D to the total number of children nationwide suggested that vitamin D deficiency could affect millions.

    Nine percent of those in the study showed vitamin D deficiency. That’s equivalent to 7.6 million children across the U.S. In addition, another 61 percent had less severe, but still insufficient, vitamin D levels. That equates to an additional 50.8 million children.

    Highest risk categories

    Low vitamin D levels were most often seen in children who were older, female, African-American, Mexican-American, obese, drinking milk less than once a week, or spending more than four hours a day indoors watching TV, playing videogames, or using computers. Authors of the study recommended that pediatricians routinely screen such high-risk children for vitamin D deficiency.

    Researchers further noted that widespread use of sunscreens has compounded the problem because the body uses UV-B sunlight to convert a form of cholesterol in the skin into vitamin D.

    Preventing vitamin D deficiency among children

    Vitamin D from sunlight

    The study authors encouraged parents to ensure children got adequate amounts of vitamin D with a combination of diet, supplements, and sunlight. According to Dr. Melamed: "It would good for them to turn off the TV and send their kids outside. Just 15 to 20 minutes a day should be enough. And unless they burn easily, don't put sunscreen on them until they've been out in the sun for 10 minutes, so they get the good stuff but not sun damage.”1

    Vitamin D from supplements

    The American Academy of Pediatrics recently updated guidelines to recommend that infants, children, and teens receive 400 IUs of vitamin D supplements a day.1 Supplements are critical for breast-fed infants because breast milk, unlike formulas, contains relatively little vitamin D.1

    Supplements are also important if you’re in northern regions that receive less sunlight. Remember that pollution has reduced the amount of sunlight reaching us, too.

    Preventing vitamin D deficiency is also important for adults

    Although vitamin D deficiency was thought to be relatively rare in the U.S., recent studies have shown it to be a growing concern for adults, too.1

    Last year, the Archives of Internal Medicine published a study showing that low levels of vitamin D may increase the risk of death from all causes.1

    Help yourself

    It is recommended that children in high-risk categories (older, female, African-American, Mexican-American, obese, drinking little milk, or spending more than four hours each day with indoor entertainment) be routinely screened for vitamin D deficiency.1

    Vitamin D is not naturally found in many foods. Our Paleolithic ancestors got all the vitamin D they needed because they lived outdoors and got plenty of sun exposure. Sun exposure is also the best way for us to get vitamin D, but supplementation may also be important because most of us do not spend a lot of time out in the sun each day.

    Getting just 15 to 20 minutes of sunlight a day may be enough.2 Unless you burn easily, it’s been recommended that you enjoy 10 minutes of sunlight before putting on sunscreen to allow the body to use UV-B sunlight to convert a form of cholesterol in the skin into vitamin D.2

    New guidelines from the American Academy of Pediatrics recommend that children receive 400 IUs of vitamin D a day. However, the Vitamin D Council suggests that children 2 years old and younger receive 1,000 IUs per day if they have little sunlight exposure.3

    Antiviral and anti-flu effects of vitamin D

    Typically, cold and flu season arrives during cold weather when we’re least likely to be outdoors in the sunlight. There is a connection between vitamin D and the strength of our immune system to fight bacteria and viruses. An antimicrobial peptide (cathelicidin) that is very effective in breaking down the walls of bacteria and viruses is dependent on vitamin D to stimulate its production.4, 5 Without cathelicidin, our immune function is compromised.4, 5

    We recommend that most adults supplement with at least 2000 IU of vitamin D per day. It is best to get your vitamin D levels tested with an inexpensive blood test, and then supplement if needed, aiming for levels between 50 and 70 ng/ml.

    Next time, we’ll take a look at the metabolic and physiologic improvements that resulted when participants in a nutrition study switched to a Paleolithic diet. We'll also share ideas on how to get all your veggies in a singe meal via salad.

              Make Your Own Jerky             by Nell Stephenson
    Perhaps it’s because jerky (whether you’re talking about beef, salmon, bison, etc.) is so portable and non-perishable, that the question of whether it’s a good Paleo choice comes up quite frequently.

    All too often store-bought jerky is laden with high amounts of sodium and sugar, which isn’t even the worst problem! Jerky may also contain sodium nitrates and nitrites (preservatives that have been linked to certain cancers), and artificial sugars, colors, etc. that you would NOT voluntarily inflict upon your body!

    The answer is to make your own! Not only will you make the cleanest jerky possible (since you know what will go into it), but you’ll also save on the cost of processing the meat.

    A recent online search revealed that you could buy a dehydrator for quite a low price. Granted, the cheapest model may not be the most premium. If you spend a little more for one that will last longer, what you can save by making your own jerky, dried fruit and veggies will be worth it in the long run!

    I’m not suggesting you should change to a diet of all dried food. I’m just suggesting this as another way to bring a form of non-perishable food to work, school or on trips. You’ll be saving money all the while by making it yourself!

              News and Upcoming Events

    • Organic foods have higher levels of minerals and antioxidants: A review article from the French Agency for Food Safety found that not only do organic foods contain less pesticides and nitrates, but they also have higher levels of minerals and antioxidants.

    • Paleo Friendly Practicing Physicians and Healthcare Practitioners: If you are a healthcare practitioner recommending the Paleo Diet as part of your practice and would like to be listed on our website, please email, and include a description of your practice and any specialties.

    • Dr. Loren Cordain will speak in Berlin, Germany: On October 13th and14th, Dr. Cordain will present “Human Nutritional Evolution” at the Workshop on Evolution and Diseases of Civilization. This will be held at Humboldt Graduate School of Mind and Brain, Humboldt University, Luisenstrasse 56, Berlin, Germany.

    • Higher intake of soy foods may be associated with lower sperm concentration: Soy beans and soy bean products have higher concentrations of isoflavones than other foods. Isoflavones are a type of phytoestrogen, or “dietary estrogen.” An analysis relating soy food and soy isoflavone intake to semen quality was published in Human Reproduction. In the study, the mean intake of isoflavones was 5.4 mg/day. On average, men consuming soy had 35 million sperm/ml less than those who did not consume soy foods. There was also a trend toward decreasing sperm concentration with increasing soy foods intake.

      The study also suggested that excess body weight may modify the relation between phytoestrogen intake and semen quality. Asian men consume 5 to 10 times more phytoestrogens than men in the study. A higher incidence of excess weight may make Western men more susceptible to phytoestrogens.

              Our Recommendations

    • Coming soon – the improved Paleo Diet Update newsletter, and the Paleo Diet Membership Community! Be on the lookout for our upcoming announcements, and get ready for more cutting-edge nutritional information, access to expert advice and information, ongoing teleseminars, and more! One of our upcoming talks will be with Linda Land, the author of The Gift of Remission.

      Information about diet and supplements helped Dr. Rich Land recover from MS in 1980. After his full remission, it was feared that his children might be genetically predisposed to the “cluster” effect of autoimmune diseases. His wife Linda then began the research into what had facilitated her husband’s recovery, and could be used as preventative measures, that culminated in her book.

      Linda’s first-hand experience with healing includes Professor Cordain’s research in the area of autoimmune disease. She attended a consultation with him for someone newly diagnosed with MS that validated the basis of her husband’s recovery years ago. Then, she had two 30-year-long recovery examples affirming Professor Cordain’s work!

      Being a part of the Paleo Diet Membership will bring you this kind of direct experience and information that explores healing disease, accelerating athletic performance, and fine-tuning dietary intervention for specific health concerns. We’ll share more information in the coming weeks.

    • A number of autoimmune diseases, including multiple sclerosis (MS), improve with dietary changes: There is a growing awareness among scientists that leaky gut syndrome is often present in autoimmune diseases. Leaky gut syndrome allows microbe and food antigens continual access to the immune system. To help with leaky gut syndrome, we’ve put together a complete overview of the evolution of the human diet, and how certain modern foods may contribute to the growing incidence of autoimmune diseases, including MS. In our program How to Treat Multiple Sclerosis with Diet, you’ll learn about the scientific evidence implicating dairy, beans, peanuts, whole grains, and even eggs and tomatoes in the origin and progression of MS, and how you can adjust your own diet in response.

      Here’s one of the reports we’ve received from those who have implemented the program:

      “I have MS, and found out about Paleo/Best Bet this time last year. I've been (not perfectly, but mostly) Paleo since March 31 2008, and have been IN COMPLETE REMISSION since I began. This is the best year I've had with MS in over 10 years."


    • Natural, life-long relief from acne is on sale. The Dietary Cure for Acne has helped thousands throw away their acne medications (and prescription and doctor bills, too!). Here’s a typical success story we get back about how well the program works:

      Our 15-year-old son is a competitive swimmer, and has had acne for several years. Several weeks ago, we decided it was time to help him to eat The Dietary Cure for Acne. His acne has cleared up like unbelievable.

      Last weekend, he had a big invitational meet. He swam like never before in his 6 years of competition. All who saw his times were amazed. His coach said, ‘he was racing.’ He is already lean, anyway. But in these past few weeks, he is looking more fit than ever. It is as though his muscles are more obvious, especially in his back.”


      Unbelievable improvement in acne and athletic performance are just a couple of the benefits from the enhanced nutrition of The Dietary Cure for Acne. When you give your body the right fuel, the improvements in many aspects of your life can be quite surprising!

      The Dietary Cure for Acne Implementation Program takes The Dietary Cure for Acne to the next level. In the Implementation Program, we will keep you on track, and give you the tools and knowledge to make eating this way easy and hassle-free.

      Our team of experts will answer your questions with live Q&A coaching. You’ll have a detailed plan of what to eat; fast and easy ways to shop for and prep food; and a step-by-step program that will make the process easy and guarantee results.

      Because this is our first time doing this, we have priced The Dietary Cure for Acne Implementation Program at the one-time-only price of $297 for this program that starts October 5th at 6:30 pm Mountain. We currently have only a few openings left.

      We’re so sure that you’ll love your clear blemish-free skin, and the other improvements you’ll experience that it comes with a full money back guarantee.

              Follow Up and Feedback

    In this section, we’ll share readers’ concerns and questions about nutrition and the Paleo Diet to help you better understand how to use the diet to optimize your health and fitness.

    We recently received this request for information:

    “I was diagnosed with ulcerative colitis about 3 years ago. It started off as a very mild case, but recently progressed to the point where my doctor was discussing having my colon removed if a new medication (Remicade) did not work. Being on Remicade has helped and I was able to put back on 20 pounds. However, I do not believe in medication alone.

    I believe that diet is a key component to living a healthy life. I follow the Paleo Diet, which has helped tremendously. I know that there are certain foods like night shade vegetables, which are part of the Paleo Diet, that I should avoid. Are there any other foods on the Paleo Diet that I should eliminate?”

    Yes, we do recommend that people with autoimmune conditions, including ulcerative colitis, modify the Paleo Diet in the following ways. As you mentioned, nightshade vegetables (like potatoes, eggplants, peppers and tomatoes) should not be consumed because they contain harmful lectins and saponins.

    In addition, egg white is a source of a membranolytic protein, namely lisozyme, that breaks cell membranes, and therefore should also be removed from your diet.

    You can learn more about how to treat autoimmune diseases in our program How to Treat Multiple Sclerosis with Diet.

    Although we can't answer every question personally due to the number of letters received, we are very interested in hearing your thoughts, learning about your experiences, and understanding your questions. Many of the questions that we receive will be answered in future newsletters.

    Talk to you next week!

    To your optimum health,

    Wiley Long, M.S., Nutrition and Exercise Science



    1. Michal L. Melamed, Juhi Kumar, Paul Muntner, Frederick J. Kaskel, and Susan M. Hailpern. Prevalence and Associations of 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Deficiency in Children and Adolescents in the United States: Results from NHANES 2001-2004. Pediatrics, August 3, 2009.

    2. Sorenson, M. (2009). Vitamin D3 and Solar Power for Optimal Health Retrieved September 02, 2009, from Dr. Sorenson’s blog Website:

    3. Deardorff, J (2009). How much vitamin D do I need? Retrieved September 02, 2009, from Website:

    4. Liu, P. et al. Toll-like receptor triggering of a vitamin D-mediated human antimicrobial response. Science 2006;311:1770-73.

    5. Gombart, A. et al. Human cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide (CAMP) gene is a direct target of the vitamin D receptor and is up-regulated in myeloid cells by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. FASEB J 2005;19:1067-77.



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      Paleo Diet Enterprises LLC
      2261 Shawnee Ct., Suite 101
      Fort Collins, CO 80525

      Posted by SL

      Posted via email from sl26mi

      Running Barefoot

      Filed under: Uncategorized — SL @ 3:14 am


      Posted via email from sl26mi

      September 28, 2009

      most posts at WordPress

      Filed under: Uncategorized — SL @ 8:16 am

      I have only recently begun to post from Posterous (with autoposting to Tumblr, Twitter, WordPress and Blogger as well).

      WordPress is my oldest extant blog. To see all of my posts – over the last year or so – go to


      @   200909281815

      Posted via web from sl26mi

      The Paleo Diet Update v5, #39 – Leaky Gut, Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS), and Psychiatric Disease

      Filed under: Uncategorized — SL @ 7:47 am

      From: Wiley Long – The Paleo Diet <>
      Date: 2009/9/26 (26 Sept 2009)
      Subject: The Paleo Diet Update v5, #39 – Leaky Gut, Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS), and Psychiatric Disease
      To: Stephen….. 

      • The Paleo Diet Update
        Loren Cordain, Ph.D.
        Issue: # 2009 – 39 / September 25, 2009


        Hello! Welcome to The Paleo Diet Update. In this update, we discuss newly published research that reveals how to change your diet to prevent many diseases and reverse their symptoms. We also share with you the success stories of people who have lost weight, cured painful conditions, improved athletic performance, improved markers for increased risk of disease, and reversed symptoms of disease.

        Thanks to Maelán Fontes and Pablo Martinez Ramirez, this update is also available in Spanish.

        One of the more common factors seen in multiple diseases is increased gut permeability, which can allow passage of pathogens, bacteria, etc. back into systemic circulation throughout the body. There is scientific evidence that decreasing gut permeability improves several conditions, both physical ailments and psychiatric disorders, such as depression.

        In this issue, we take a look at current research that suggests the gut-brain connection plays an important role in IBS patients suffering from psychiatric diseases. We’ll also show you how to make breakfast without a grain-based product like cereal, a bagel, or toast. Eliminating grain-based products has helped those suffering with IBS and many other illnesses.


        Loren Cordain, Ph.D.

        In This Issue

        Paleo Breakfasts for Champions
            Leaky Gut, Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS), and Psychiatric Disease          
                   by Maelán Fontes and Pedro Bastos

        Psychiatric disorders are common conditions among IBS patients1. Recent research suggests that the gut-brain connection plays an important role in IBS patients suffering from psychiatric diseases2, 3.

        IBS and psychiatric disorders

        IBS is diagnosed in patients suffering from abdominal pain/discomfort and inconsistency in stool frequency. IBS is included in functional gastrointestinal disorders because organic causes are not present. Currently, it seems to be produced by anomalies in the digestive function, especially motility and sensitivity1. However, it is associated with activation of mucosal immune cells.

        IBS is a common condition affecting between 10-20 percent of the population4. It is more prevalent in women, and is exacerbated by stress5.

        Less than half of IBS patients seek treatment, but of those who do, between 50-90 percent have psychiatric disorders. This includes panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, social phobia, post traumatic stress disorder, and major depression2.

        The root of mood disorders

        Current theories suggest that impaired neurotransmitter metabolism, neuroendocrine function, and neural plasticity disrupted by inflammatory and neurodegenerative processes may be at the root of mood disorders. These processes include factors such as low-grade chronic inflammation, oxidative and nitrosative stress, and tryptophan catabolites6, 7.

        One of the mechanisms leading to mood disorders in IBS patients is “bottom-up signalling” from the gut4. This signalling is mediated chiefly by the so-called vagus nerve, which directly connects the gut mucosa with mood-related brain areas4.

        Another mechanism involves the central nerve system (CNS) immune activation, which is induced by peripheral inflammatory substances, namely cytokines. This leads to an inflammatory response, and oxidative and nitrosative stress in the brain6, 7.

        Such immune activation could result from peripheral inflammation. The gut immune system could be the source of this inflammation since the gut associated lymphoid tissue is challenged and activated by countless antigenic and allergenic substances (bacterial and dietary antigens) every day8.

        Increased gut permeability linked to psychiatric conditions

        Scientific evidence shows that decreasing gut permeability improves conditions such as depression and chronic fatigue syndrome9.

        One important factor that might activate “bottom-up signalling” and CNS immune activation is increased gut permeability or leaky gut (LG)3, 4, 7, 8. LG refers to the gut barrier allowing increased passage of bacterial or dietary antigens from the gut to peripheral circulation6, 8. This might increase the risk of psychiatric disease.

        Lectins8, saponins10, gliadin11, capsaicin, alcohol12, and factors known to increase E. coli and gram-negative bacteria overgrowth (such as certain dietary lectins8) are common in the Western diet, and can produce LG through different mechanisms8, 10, 11.

        The Paleo Diet protects against increased gut permeability and related disorders

        The Paleo Diet can help reduce gut permeability by eliminating foods known to contribute to LG. This includes lectin-containing foods, such as cereal grains and legumes (including peanuts and soybeans)8.

        Gliadin11 is also associated with LG, and it is found in all wheat-derived products (such as bread, pasta, pizzas, bagels, and donuts).

        When LG is a concern, we recommend that solanaceous plants (such as tomatoes, potatoes, eggplant and peppers)10, 13 as well as alfalfa sprouts14, root beer15, amaranth, quinoa, alcohol12, and chilli peppers (which contain capsaicin) also be avoided.

        We further recommend avoiding eggs, at least until LG symptoms subside. Egg white is a source of some membranolytic proteins, such as lysozyme16, that break cell membranes and may contribute to LG.

        Following the Paleo Diet has been shown anecdotally to help IBS and other autoimmune diseases, and many autoimmune diseases present with LG.

        Next time, we’ll take a look at who is at high risk for vitamin D deficiency, and the risk factors for disease associated with this. We'll also share ideas on how to save with grocery store specials.

                  Paleo Breakfasts for Champions             by Nell Stephenson
        When converting to a Paleo lifestyle, many people find breakfast to be the most challenging meal to keep Paleo. No doubt, this is probably due to the conditioning we’ve likely all received that a healthy way to start the day is with a grain-based product (cereal, bagel, toast and so on). Many of us view certain foods as being for breakfast, others for lunch and dinner, and others for snacks.

        The first step is to throw that thinking out the window! Food is food no matter what time of day, and the morning is a great time to eat vegetables! I personally, eat veggies and red meat, chicken or fish for breakfast on a typical day.

        But, what should you eat if you’re an athlete preparing for a workout? I change my usual breakfast if I’ve got a big workout to do right away. Rather than the protein and veg-heavy foods I mentioned above, I’ll opt for a starchier (via yam, sweet potato or banana) and easier to digest (like egg whites) combination so that I’m not only well fueled, but I don’t have to wait too long to digest.

        The amount you should consume will be determined by body weight and the intensity and duration of the workout. Experiment a bit and see how much you need to eat based on how you feel during the workout, and change the subsequent meal accordingly. Here are some great ideas for athletes looking for a great way to start the day, pre-workout, while remaining Paleo.

        • Baked yam, hard-boiled egg whites, olive oil, banana, and raw almond butter

        • Homemade smoothie: chilled green tea, egg white protein powder, banana, raw almond butter, and flax seed

        • Baked sweet potato, natural (unsweetened) applesauce, sliced lean turkey breast, and olive oil

        Stick with higher glycemic fruits right before and after a workout. Also, remember to add some table salt because athletes need to replace lost electrolytes. We athletes may need to supplement with electrolyte tabs, depending on the intensity and duration of our workouts, as well as ambient conditions and individual sweat rates.

        Experiment with the above suggestions and make changes to keep it varied. Try pineapple in a smoothie instead of banana, or use baby food banana instead of applesauce.

        Whatever you do, DON’T make the mistake of thinking that you have to resort to non-Paleo foods to support athletic performance. If I can stay Paleo while racing Ironman, and my husband can stick to it while racing 100-mile endurance runs, I think it’s safe to say that Paleo provides 100% of the support needed for endurance racing, or any other athletic endeavor!

                  News and Upcoming Events

        • Chronic stress linked to obesity: The journal Integrative Physiology published a study explaining how chronic exposure to environmental stress may play a role in the development of obesity, through hyperactivation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis. This study investigated the dynamics of weight gain and the activity of the HPA axis in women who developed weight gain after a stressful event.

        • Paleo Friendly Practicing Physicians and Healthcare Practitioners: If you are a healthcare practitioner recommending the Paleo Diet as part of your practice and would like to be listed on our website, please email, and include a description of your practice and any specialties.

        • Dr. Loren Cordain to speak in Berlin, Germany: October 11th-15th, Dr. Cordain will be presenting information at a round table, open-ended discussion on evolution and disease in Berlin. Please reply to this email for further details.
                  Our Recommendations

        • The Paleo Diet Update Archive can get you up-to-date on years of research into how you can use diet to improve your health. For example, here’s a selection from our archive that explains the cause of gallstones. This is from Vol 5 Issue 32 "The Paleo Diet Can Help Prevent Gallbladder Disease".

          “Gallbladder disease is more related to insulin resistance3-5 and chronic consumption of high glycemic load refined carbohydrates than it is related to either fat or cholesterol, such as is found in eggs. Furthermore, cholesterol production by the liver can be more troublesome than exogenous cholesterol consumption.

          Hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance induce hepatic (liver) cholesterol hypersecretion, and cholesterol hypersaturation of bile as well as gallbladder hypomotility (low movement) are important factors in the formation of gallstones4.”

          The complete archive is available in three zip files for only $99.95.

        • Safe, permanent, inexpensive relief from acne is here. The Dietary Cure for Acne is based on peer-reviewed, scientific research into what causes acne and how to break that cycle.

          This natural cure has none of side effects of acne medicines or cleansers, and it has helped thousands escape the embarrassment and expense of living with acne. Here’s a typical report we get back about how The Dietary Cure for Acne has provided long sought after relief:

          I have suffered intense acne for years and have tried basically every acne medication out there without success, except for Accutane because of the possible side effects.

          After two months of being in the diet, I can see incredible progress in my complexion and continuously see improvements. I cannot express the astounding changes with words: my family and friends are amazed. Again, for this I thank you deeply.

          I have also cherished the changes the diet has brought to different aspects of my life: one of these has been better racquetball performance (I'm a racquetball aficionado).”


          The Dietary Cure for Acne Implementation Program takes The Dietary Cure for Acne to the next level. In the Implementation Program, we will keep you on track, and give you the tools and knowledge to make eating this way easy and hassle-free.

          With this program, you’ll get personal access to our team of experts with live Q&A coaching. You’ll have a detailed plan on what to eat; you’ll learn fast and easy ways to shop for and prep food; and you’ll have a step-by-step program that will make the process easy and guarantee results.

          Another benefit of eating this way is losing excess body fat, so we’ll also discuss why this happens.

          Rosacea, a special kind of acne, has also responded very well to this program. So, we’ll discuss some extra nutritional steps you may want to take if you have rosacea.

          For those who are interested, we’ll also discuss how this diet helps autoimmune diseases and gut permeability.

          Because this is our first time doing this, we have priced The Dietary Cure for Acne Implementation Program at the one-time-only price of $297. There are only six spots still available for this program that starts October 4th at 6:30 pm Mountain. We’re so confident that you’ll love your clear blemish-free skin, and the other improvements you’ll see in the rest of your life, that if you’re not happy with your own results, you’ll get a full refund.

                  Follow Up and Feedback

        In this section, we’ll share readers’ concerns and questions about nutrition and the Paleo Diet to help you better understand how to use the diet to optimize your health and fitness.

        We recently received a question concerning how much fish oil should be taken on a daily basis:

        From an evolutionary standpoint, it appears that hunter-gatherers consumed around 1 gram a day of EPA + DHA. This is from Dr. Cordain’s paper titled ”Dietary intake of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids during the Paleolithic” published in World Rev Nutr Diet.

        The intake of vegetable omega-6 fatty acids in the Paleolithic was considerably lower than it is in the typical Western diet. During the Paleolithic, 1 gram of DHA + EPA was enough for a healthy person to achieve a 1:1 ratio of omega-6:omega-3.

        In the typical Western diet, however, the omega-6:omega-3 ratio is between 10-15:1. Therefore, we recommend to cut down vegetable omega-6 oils, and increase omega-3 fish oil to 2 grams of EPA + DHA (not all omega-3 is DHA + EPA).

        In the case of an autoimmune and/or inflammatory disease, we recommend you increase this to 4 grams a day of EPA + DHA.

        The bottom line is to eat fish 3 or 4 times a week, and take a supplement of 2 grams a day, at least during the first 4-6 months.

        Although we can't answer every question personally due to the number of letters received, we are very interested in hearing your thoughts, learning about your experiences, and understanding your questions. Many of the questions that we receive will be answered in future newsletters.

        Talk to you next week!

        To your optimum health,

        Wiley Long, M.S., Nutrition and Exercise Science



        1. Garakani A, Win T, Virk S, Gupta S, Kaplan D, Masand PS. Comorbidity of irritable bowel syndrome in psychiatric patients: a review. American journal of therapeutics 2003;10(1):61-7.

        2. Lydiard RB. Irritable bowel syndrome, anxiety, and depression: what are the links? The Journal of clinical psychiatry 2001;62 Suppl 8:38-45; discussion 6-7.

        3. Maes M, Kubera M, Leunis JC. The gut-brain barrier in major depression: intestinal mucosal dysfunction with an increased translocation of LPS from gram negative enterobacteria (leaky gut) plays a role in the inflammatory pathophysiology of depression. Neuro endocrinology letters 2008;29(1):117-24.

        4. Hungin AP, Whorwell PJ, Tack J, Mearin F. The prevalence, patterns and impact of irritable bowel syndrome: an international survey of 40,000 subjects. Alimentary pharmacology & therapeutics 2003;17(5):643-50.

        5. Goehler LE, Lyte M, Gaykema RP. Infection-induced viscerosensory signals from the gut enhance anxiety: implications for psychoneuroimmunology. Brain, behavior, and immunity 2007;21(6):721-6.

        6. Maes M. The cytokine hypothesis of depression: inflammation, oxidative & nitrosative stress (IO&NS) and leaky gut as new targets for adjunctive treatments in depression. Neuro endocrinology letters 2008;29(3):287-91.

        7. Miller AH, Maletic V, Raison CL. Inflammation and its discontents: the role of cytokines in the pathophysiology of major depression. Biological psychiatry 2009;65(9):732-41.

        8. Cordain L, Toohey L, Smith MJ, Hickey MS. Modulation of immune function by dietary lectins in rheumatoid arthritis. The British journal of nutrition 2000;83(3):207-17.

        9. Maes M, Leunis JC. Normalization of leaky gut in chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is accompanied by a clinical improvement: effects of age, duration of illness and the translocation of LPS from gram-negative bacteria. Neuro endocrinology letters 2008;29(6):902-10.

        10. Francis G, Kerem Z, Makkar HP, Becker K. The biological action of saponins in animal systems: a review. The British journal of nutrition 2002;88(6):587-605.

        11. Lammers KM, Lu R, Brownley J, et al. Gliadin induces an increase in intestinal permeability and zonulin release by binding to the chemokine receptor CXCR3. Gastroenterology 2008;135(1):194-204 e3.

        12. Keshavarzian A, Holmes EW, Patel M, Iber F, Fields JZ, Pethkar S. Leaky gut in alcoholic cirrhosis: a possible mechanism for alcohol-induced liver damage. Am J Gastroenterol 1999;94(1):200-7.

        13. Patel B, Schutte R, Sporns P, Doyle J, Jewel L, Fedorak RN. Potato glycoalkaloids adversely affect intestinal permeability and aggravate inflammatory bowel disease. Inflammatory bowel diseases 2002;8(5):340-6.

        14. Story JA, LePage SL, Petro MS, et al. Interactions of alfalfa plant and sprout saponins with cholesterol in vitro and in cholesterol-fed rats. The American journal of clinical nutrition 1984;39(6):917-29.

        15. Sun HX, Xie Y, Ye YP. Advances in saponin-based adjuvants. Vaccine 2009;27(12):1787-96.

        16. Stevens L. Egg white proteins. Comparative biochemistry and physiology 1991;100(1):1-9.



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          The Paleo Diet Update v5, #38 – Antioxidant Supplementation: A Paleo Perspective

          Filed under: Uncategorized — SL @ 7:41 am

          From: Wiley Long – The Paleo Diet <>
          Date: 2009/9/19  (19 Sept 2009)
          Subject: The Paleo Diet Update v5, #38 – Antioxidant Supplementation: A Paleo Perspective

          • The Paleo Diet Update

            Loren Cordain, Ph.D.
            Issue: # 2009 – 38 / September 18, 2009


            Hello! Welcome to The Paleo Diet Update, where we investigate current scientific research showing how you can improve your life with the nutrition our species evolved to need.

            Thanks to Maelán Fontes and Pablo Martinez Ramirez, this update is also available in Spanish.

            In the face of alarming increases in life-threatening disease, medical research has repeatedly shown that a diet similar to what our Paleolithic ancestors ate can reduce the risk of many diseases, and bring rapid improvement in certain disease symptoms. The Paleo Diet has been shown to improve glycemic control and cardiovascular risk factors. Autoimmune diseases, including arthritis and multiple sclerosis, have shown improvement in response to changing to the Paleo Diet.

            This is because the Paleo Diet balances a range of variables that can influence many diseases, and improve health in various ways. To hear what participants in the last Paleo Diet Implementation Program (that just concluded yesterday) say about how it has improved their lives, click here.

            In this issue, we take a look at how antioxidants fight the damaging effects of free radicals, and where to find the best sources of antioxidants. We'll also show you how to make fun, non-alcoholic drinks.


            Loren Cordain, Ph.D.

            In This Issue

            Alcohol-Free Drink Options
                Antioxidant Supplementation: A Paleo Perspective           by George W. Peck

            Oxidation is a chemical reaction that transfers electrons between substances. Although this is crucial for life, it can also be damaging because it produces free radicals. Generating free radicals during biochemical reactions within the human body is a necessary and normal process, which, ideally, would be compensated for by our internal antioxidant systems. Over time, plants and animals have evolved complex systems to protect cells from free radicals.

            Unfortunately, many environmental, lifestyle, and pathological situations can allow excess free radicals to accumulate. This results in oxidative stress that has been related to cardiovascular disease, cancer, and other chronic diseases that now account for a major portion of deaths1, 2.

            Antioxidants fight the damaging effects of free radicals

            Antioxidants are compounds that hinder oxidative processes, delaying or preventing oxidative stress. By slowing or preventing oxidation of other molecules, antioxidants stop damaging effects of free radicals2.

            The systems that protect cells from free radicals use multiple types of antioxidants. These include glutathione, beta-carotene, vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin E, selenium, and zinc. Enzymes, such as catalase, superoxide dismutase, and various peroxidases are also used.

            For more than five decades, studies aimed at determining the causes of aging have focused on oxidative stress due to free radicals, and the connection between oxidative stress and dietary antioxidants3-6. Low levels of antioxidants, or inhibition of antioxidant enzymes can cause oxidative stress and may damage or kill cells.

            Research into how antioxidants affect disease is increasing

            The research on antioxidant biochemistry is expanding at a rapid pace. Recent publications have examined hypoxia-inducible genes that protect against free radicals7, and links between selenium-poor soils. Free radicals and male infertility have also been studied8.

            Other studies have looked at Kashin-Beck disease in central China9, antioxidant supplementation during chemotherapy for breast cancer10, and timing of black currant extract consumption11.

            Invitro studies of multiple antioxidants suggest wide antioxidant network between water- and fat-soluble antioxidant nutrients in a biological system, although more studies are needed12.

            Antioxidants in fruits and vegetables have been linked to reduced risk of cardiovascular disease in a Swedish study13. Likewise, increased consumption of fruits and vegetables protects against stroke14. The important antioxidant properties of polyphenols15 in fruits and vegetables16, 17 will be an area to watch as science progresses.

            Dietary supplementation with antioxidants may do more harm than good

            Consumption of antioxidant supplements has become widespread. It is estimated that about one third of adults in developed countries consume antioxidant supplements18.

            The past decade has produced a large number of studies that assessed both the costs and benefits of antioxidant supplementation. Unfortunately, this research has shown that dietary supplementation with antioxidants may do more harm than good19-22.

            For example, a meta-analysis (a scientific review combining results of related research) of antioxidant studies found that supplementation with beta-carotene, vitamin A, and vitamin E did not increase lifespan23-27.

            In fact, some reviews have suggested antioxidant supplementation may increase the risk of early death. For example, a meta-analysis of supplementation with beta carotene, vitamin A, and vitamin E suggested an increase in overall mortality among people taking supplements23.

            Surprisingly, supplementation with vitamin C has been shown to decrease training efficiency28, cancel beneficial effects of exercise on insulin sensitivity29, and delay healing after exercise30. In addition, vitamin C supplementation did not decrease free radical damage to DNA31.

            A recent meta-analysis of clinical studies that focused on vitamin E supplementation also showed increased overall mortality in those taking vitamin E26. It should be noted, however, that the importance of the antioxidant properties of vitamin E at the concentrations present in the body are not clear. It is possible that vitamin E is required in the diet for reasons unrelated to its ability to act as an antioxidant32.

            Concentrated, pure antioxidants were not part of our ancestral diet

            Our Paleolithic ancestors had no access to concentrated forms of pure antioxidants like those in modern supplements. They got all their vitamins (including antioxidants) and minerals from food they hunted or gathered, or, in the case of vitamin D, from sunlight33, 34.

            Given our present knowledge about the apparent lack of benefit from consuming antioxidants as supplements, it is probably best to get antioxidants from fruits and vegetables, especially those grown organically in healthy soils35, 36.

            The Paleo Diet is good source of antioxidants

            Fortunately, we can still get antioxidants from the foods we eat. Research shows that, aside from vitamin D, it is possible to consume a nutritionally balanced diet from contemporary foods that mimic the food groups and types available during the Paleolithic37.

            With its high consumption of fruits and vegetables, the Paleo Diet provides optimum levels of vitamins and minerals as well as antioxidants. In this diet, vegetable consumption is unlimited, and fruit consumption is only limited by certain conditions, such as excess weight, insulin resistance, hypertension, metabolic syndrome, diabetes, kidney disease, and cardiovascular disease. For those who may need to limit fruits with a high sugar content, a table of fruits and sugars is available on our website.

            Many of the Paleo Diet foods supply antioxidants. Vitamin C is available in parsley, kiwi fruit, broccoli, persimmon, papaya, strawberry and citrus fruits. Asparagus, avocado, eggs, almonds, and spinach are good sources of vitamin E. Selenium can be obtained from Brazil nuts, walnuts, and lean meats. Lean meats and nuts are also good sources of zinc38.

            Liver is a good source of pre-formed vitamin A. There are plant sources of beta carotene, but not of preformed vitamin A. Recent evidence indicates that the conversion of beta carotene to vitamin A in the liver is inefficient in humans.

            The Paleo Diet, along with sun exposure and vitamin D supplementation, will optimize our health because it is our evolutionary heritage. Following the Paleo Diet, with its focus on lean meats, fruits and vegetables, along with a sensible exercise program, will go a long way toward alleviating the chronic diseases that plague our Western culture.

            Next time, we’ll take a look at current research that suggests the gut-brain connection plays an important role in IBS patients suffering from psychiatric diseases. We'll also show you how to make breakfast (without a grain-based product like cereal, a bagel, or toast) a healthy way to start the day.

                      Alcohol-Free Drink Options             by Nell Stephenson
            Hosting any parties? If you’ve mastered serving exclusively Paleo foods at dinner gatherings at home, but feel daunted by only serving water to accompany the meal, then try some of the following ideas to liven things up a little.

            Planning a tropical island-esque dinner? How about a Pina Colada? Just mix 8 oz. of ice cubes and water with 6 oz. of frozen pineapple cubes, and 1 T of extra virgin coconut oil. If you want to offer it as more of a snack than a drink, throw in a scoop of egg white protein powder. For you athletes, try this as a recovery drink as well – what a nice alternative to a banana! Serve in a tall glass, and go ahead and add a little umbrella!

            Going with a lighter fare menu? One of my favorite ways to offer water is to serve it spa-style. Slice oranges, lemons, cucumber and kiwi, and put a few of each in a large, attractive glass pitcher. Fill with water and chill; not only is it refreshing and tasty, but it looks quite handsome on the table!

            Serving Mexican Food? A blended, icy citrus drink pairs well with the flavorful spiciness inherent to some of the dishes you may be serving. Thus, there’s the good old, familiar tendency to have a Margarita, of course!. Whip 8 oz. of ice cubes with water in a blender with some frozen lemon and lime slices. Serve with a small piece of lime rind and a straw. Don’t forget how important presentation is! While you won’t fool guests into thinking they’re having a Virgin Margarita, you’ll be sparing them all the sugar you find in a pre-made mix.

            Want something with a little color? Rather than serving juice (which is often quite sugary), use just a splash of juice with some sparkling water over ice (perhaps just an ounce with 8 – 10 ounces of water).

            Finally, keep in mind that an occasional glass of red wine may be consumed in keeping with the Paleo Diet, as per The Paleo Diet book. Just save it for special occasions, and you’ll enjoy it even more than if you had it all the time!

                      News and Upcoming Events

            • Insulin resistance may be the primary risk factor of chronic Western diseases: The journal Medical Hypothesis published a paper titled “Permanent impairment of insulin resistance (IR) from pregnancy to adulthood: The primary basic risk factor of chronic Western diseases.” This charges that Western eating patterns permanently boost IR from intrauterine life through senescence.

            • Professor Loren Cordain will be speaking in San Diego, California: On Sept 19th, 2009, Dr. Cordain will present "Origins and Evolution of the Western Diet: Health Implications for the 21st Century" Other guest speakers include Robb Wolf (owner of NorCal Strength & Conditioning, former research biochemist, review editor for the Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism, co-publisher and co-founder of The Performance Menu) and John Welbourn (10 year NFL veteran, creator of CrossFit Football, owner of CrossFitBalboa, training for athletes in Orange County, CA, and co-creator of Paleo Brands). The Paleo seminar will be at the Double Tree Hotel, 10 AM – 3 PM in Mission Valley, San Diego, CA. $150 registration.

            • Low glycemic index breakfasts prevent hunger and increase fat use:  A study published in The Journal of Nutrition examined how consuming low-glycemic index carbohydrates before endurance exercise results in increased fat oxidation during exercise.

                      Our Recommendations – Permanent Weight Loss Now

            • Need help losing weight? We have less than 10 spots left on our program starting September 24th. We just finished the 4th week of our current Paleo Diet Implementation Program, and participants are talking about how much better they feel:

              “I’ve been doing well, a lot more energy, and I’m down 21 lbs. I really feel a lot better.”


              Martin is one of many who have used this world-class coaching and instruction program to make permanent lifestyle changes and create better lives for themselves! To hear what participants in the last Paleo Diet Implementation Program (that just concluded yesterday) said about their experience in this coaching program, click here. You can have the same support and personal coaching in The Paleo Diet Implementation Program starting September 24th.

              These 6 weeks of teleconference instruction, coaching, and assignments help you make permanent improvements in your health and well being. We’ll give you a detailed plan of what to eat, fast and easy ways to shop and prep food, a step-by-step program that guarantees results, and you’ll get a recording of all calls to keep.

              This program is for anyone who wants to use nutrition for permanent weight loss, better mental focus, greater energy, enhanced athletic performance, and reduced risk from disease (we have a special version for autoimmune diseases).

              Here’s a typical report we get back about how the Paleo Diet helps:

              I have a lot more energy, I’ve lost weight, and somebody said I’m positively glowing. It’s working very well. Also I’m sleeping. I haven’t slept well in 25 years. Maybe that’s why I’m glowing.”


              As you can see, most are enjoying quick weight loss, like Lorie who says “I feel like I have more energy and I’m not as hungry as I was all the time.”

              In our weight loss call, Pedro explains how 9 key factors help you lose weight. Sleep is one of these because sleep affects various hormones, including ghrelin, cortisol, and growth hormone. Sun exposure is another. When ultraviolet light hits your skin, your body ultimately produces melanocortins, which function to signal your brain to stop eating. The glycemic load of foods is involved, too, because it affects your insulin response.

              There are six other factors that make losing weight on the Paleo Diet easier than most people imagine. We’re so sure it will work for you that if you’re not satisfied with your own results, you can have a full refund. Sign up today at This group will probably sell out in the next couple of days. If you are unsure about joining the program, you can join us on a free preview call at 8:30 pm Eastern on Tuesday, September 22. Click this link for the webcast or call-in number.

                      Follow Up and Feedback

            In this section, we’ll share readers’ concerns and questions about nutrition and the Paleo Diet to help you better understand how to use the diet to optimize your health and fitness.

            We received the following question:

            “Can you explain the mechanism by which fruits and veggies are alkyline producing versus grains, which are acid producing?”

            Upon digestion, all foods ultimately must report to the kidneys as either acid or base. When the diet yields a net acid load (such as diets that restrict fruits and vegetables), the acid must be buffered by the alkaline stores of base in the body. Base-producing foods are fruits and vegetables, whereas grains, meat, fish, cheese, and salted processed foods are acid-producing.

            In addition to promoting bone demineralization, a net acid-producing diet also contributes to the following problems: calcium kidney stones, age-related muscle wasting, hypertension, stroke, asthma and exercise-induced asthma. The Paleo Diet recommends an appropriate balance of acidic and alkaline foods to promote health. A table is available on our website that lists the acid/base values for 114 common foods.

            Although we can't answer every question personally due to the number of letters received, we are very interested in hearing your thoughts, learning about your experiences, and understanding your questions. Many of the questions that we receive will be answered in future newsletters.

            Talk to you next week!

            To your optimum health,

            Wiley Long, M.S., Nutrition and Exercise Science



            1. Bjelakovic, G., & Gluud, C. (2007). Surviving Antioxidant Supplements. Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 99(10), 742-743.

            2. Willcox, J. K., Ash, S. L., & Catignani, G. L. (2004). Antioxidants and Prevention of Chronic Disease. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 44(4), 275 – 295.

            3. de Grey, A. D. (2002). The reductive hotspot hypothesis of mammalian aging: membrane metabolism magnifies mutant mitochondrial mischief. European Journal of Biochemistry, 269(8), 2003-2009.

            4. Harman, D. (1956). Aging: a theory based on free radical and radiation chemistry. Journal of Gerontology, 11(298-300).

            5. Schulz, T. J., Zarse, K., Voigt, A., Urban, N., Birringer, M., & Ristow, M. (2007). Glucose Restriction Extends Caenorhabditis elegans Life Span by Inducing Mitochondrial Respiration and Increasing Oxidative Stress. Cell Metabolism, 6(4), 280-293.

            6. Tapia, P. C. (2006). Sublethal mitochondrial stress with an attendant stoichiometric augmentation of reactive oxygen species may precipitate many of the beneficial alterations in cellular physiology produced by caloric restriction, intermittent fasting, exercise and dietary phytonutrients: "Mitohormesis" for health and vitality. Medical Hypotheses, 66(4), 832-843.

            7. Dioum, E., Chen, R., Alexander, M., Zhang, Q., Hogg, R., Gerard, R., et al. (2009). Regulation of Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 2alpha Signaling by the Stress-Responsive Deacteylase Sirtuin 1. Science, 324, 1289-1293.

            8. Makker, K., Agarwal, A., & Sharma, R. (2009). Oxidative stress & male infertility. Indian Journal of Medical Research, 129(4), 357-367.

            9. Stone, R. (2009). A Medical Mystery in Middle China. Science, 324, 1378-1381.

            10. Greenlee, H., Gammon, M. D., Abrahamson, P. E., Gaudet, M. M., Terry, M. B., Hershman, D. L., et al. (2009). Prevalence and Predictors of Antioxidant Supplement Use During Breast Cancer Treatment The Long Island Breast Cancer Study Project. Cancer, 115(14), 3271-3282.

            11. Lyall, K. A., Hurst, S. M., Cooney, J., Jensen, D., Lo, K., Hurst, R. D., et al. (2009). Short-term blackcurrant extract consumption modulates exercise-induced oxidative stress and lipopolysaccharide-stimulated inflammatory responses. American Journal of Physiology-Regulatory Integrative and Comparative Physiology, 297(1), R70-R81.

            12. Yeum, K. J., Beretta, G., Krinsky, N. I., Russell, R. M., & Aldini, G. (2009). Synergistic interactions of antioxidant nutrients in a biological model system. Nutrition, 25(7-8), 839-846.

            13. Helmersson, J., Arnlov, J., Larsson, A., & Basu, S. (2009). Low dietary intake of beta-carotene, alpha-tocopherol and ascorbic acid is associated with increased inflammatory and oxidative stress status in a Swedish cohort. British Journal of Nutrition, 101(12), 1775-1782.

            14. Sanchez-Moreno, C., Jimenez-Escrig, A., & Martin, A. (2009). Stroke: roles of B vitamins, homocysteine and antioxidants. Nutrition Research Reviews, 22(1), 49-67.

            15. Halliwell, B. (2007). Dietary polyphenols: Good, bad, or indifferent for your health? Cardiovasc Res, 73(2), 341-347.

            16. Hu, M. (2007). Commentary: Bioavailability of Flavonoids and Polyphenols: Call to Arms. Molecular Pharmaceutics, 4(6), 803-806.

            17. Manach, C., Scalbert, A., Morand, C., Remesy, C., & Jimenez, L. (2004). Polyphenols: food sources and bioavailability. Am J Clin Nutr, 79(5), 727-747.

            18. Millen, A. E., Dodd, K. W., & Subar, A. F. (2004). Use of vitamin, mineral, nonvitamin, and nonmineral supplements in the United States: the 1987, 1992, and 2000 National Health Interview Survey results. J Am Diet Assoc, 104, 942-950.

            19. Halliwell, B. (2006). Polyphenols: antioxidant treats for healthy living or covert toxins. J Sci Food Agric, 86, 1992-1995.

            20. Lawlor, D. A., Smith, G. D., Bruckdorfer, K. R., Kundu, D., & Ebrahim, S. (2004). Those confounded vitamins: what can we learn from the differences between observational versus randomised trial evidence? The Lancet, 363(9422), 1724-1727.

            21. Lee, D.-H., Folsom, A. R., Harnack, L., Halliwell, B., & Jacobs, D. R., Jr. (2004). Does supplemental vitamin C increase cardiovascular disease risk in women with diabetes? Am J Clin Nutr, 80(5), 1194-1200.

            22. Neuhouser, M. L., Patterson, R. E., Thornquist, M. D., Omenn, G. S., King, I. B., & Goodman, G. E. (2003). Fruits and Vegetables Are Associated with Lower Lung Cancer Risk Only in the Placebo Arm of the {beta}-Carotene and Retinol Efficacy Trial (CARET). Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev, 12(4), 350-358.

            23. Bjelakovic, G., Nikolova, D., Gluud, L., Simonetti, R., & Gluud, C. (2007). Mortality in Randomized Trials of Antioxidant Supplements for Primary and Secondary Prevention: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. JAMA, 297(8), 842-857.

            24. Bjelakovic, G., Nikolova, D., Simonetti, R., & Gluud, C. (2004). Antioxidant supplements for preventing gastrointestinal cancers. Cochrane Database Syst Rev (4) CD004183( ).

            25. Bjelakovic, G., Nikolova, D., Simonetti, R., & Gluud, C. (2004). Antioxidant supplements for prevention of gastrointestinal cancers: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet, 364, 1219-1228.

            26. Miller, E. R., III, Pastor-Barriuso, R., Dalal, D., Riemersma, R. A., Appel, L. J., & Guallar, E. (2005). Meta-Analysis: High-Dosage Vitamin E Supplementation May Increase All-Cause Mortality. Ann Intern Med, 142(1), 37-46.

            27. Vivekananthan, D., Penn, M., S., S., Hsu, A., & Topol, E. (2003). Use of antioxidant vitamins for the prevention of cardiovascular disease: meta-analysis of randomized trials. Lancet, 361, 2017-2023.

            28. Gomez-Cabrera, M.-C., Domenech, E., Romagnoli, M., Arduini, A., Borras, C., Pallardo, F. V., et al. (2008). Oral administration of vitamin C decreases muscle mitochondrial biogenesis and hampers training-induced adaptations in endurance performance. Am J Clin Nutr, 87(1), 142-149.

            29. Ristow, M., Zarse, K., Oberbach, A., KlÃting, N., Birringer, M., Kiehntopf, M., et al. (2009). Antioxidants prevent health-promoting effects of physical exercise in humans. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 106(21), 8665-8670.

            30. Herbert, K., Fletcher, S., Chauhan, D., Ladapo, A., Nirwan, J., Munson, S., et al. (2006). Dietary supplementation with different vitamin C doses: no effect on oxidative DNA damage in healthy people. European Journal of Nutrition, 45(2), 97-104.

            31. Close, G. L., Ashton, T., Cable, T., Doran, D., Holloway, C., McArdle, F., et al. (2006). Ascorbic acid supplementation does not attenuate post-exercise muscle soreness following muscle-damaging exercise but may delay the recovery process. British Journal of Nutrition, 95(05), 976-981.

            32. Brigelius-Flohe, R., & Traber, M. G. (1999). Vitamin E: function and metabolism. FASEB J., 13(10), 1145-1155.

            33. Benzie, I. (2003). Evolution of dietary antioxidants. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A, 136, 113-126.

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            35. Asami, D. K., Hong, Y.-J., Barrett, D. M., & Mitchell, A. E. (2003). Comparison of the Total Phenolic and Ascorbic Acid Content of Freeze-Dried and Air-Dried Marionberry, Strawberry, and Corn Grown Using Conventional, Organic, and Sustainable Agricultural Practices. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 51(5), 1237-1241.

            36. Chassy, A. W., Bui, L., Renaud, E. N. C., Van Horn, M., & Mitchell, A. E. (2006). Three-Year Comparison of the Content of Antioxidant Microconstituents and Several Quality Characteristics in Organic and Conventionally Managed Tomatoes and Bell Peppers. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 54(21), 8244-8252.

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              2261 Shawnee Ct., Suite 101
              Fort Collins, CO 80525

              Posted via email from sl26mi

              September 27, 2009

              Hello world!

              Filed under: Uncategorized — SL @ 8:20 am

              Welcome to This is your first post. Edit or delete it and start blogging!

              September 24, 2009

              vaccination for shingles?

              Filed under: Uncategorized — SL @ 10:55 am

              I hadn't thought much about vaccination for shingles until my SO got recurrent episodes of it.

              Because cell mediated immunity to varicella-zoster-virus (VCV) declines with age, vaccination for shingles is something to be considered in those over 50.

              The information sheet at NCIRS-University of Sydney may be of interest.



              Posted via email from scjlzmx

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